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Under the entrance area of the Great Ofnet cave, the skulls from more than 20 children and 14 adults, predominantly women, lay in two troughs. Because the lower jaws and often also the upper neck vertebrae exist, it is thought that not skulls, but instead heads, were placed in the ground. Traces of cuts on the vertebrae prove the violent separation of the heads from the trunks. The varying positions of the often deadly blows on some heads demonstrates that some of the victims were slain while standing, others while lying.

A certain respect was shown to the heads of the slain. They were sprinkled with red-colored earth or ocher and adorned with chains and jewelry made from snail shells and the canine teeth of red deer.

According to the stratification of the find, the burial of the heads took place at the end of the Middle Stone Age. A new Carbon-14 date confirmed this time estimate of approximately 7,720 years ago, plus or minus 800 years. 

Other decapitated heads were found under an overhang of the ”Kaufertsberg” hill and in the ”Hohlenstein-Stadel” cave. The accumulation of head burials in the Ries is a remarkable, though macabre, and unique occurrence.

The earliest detectable use of caves in the Ries occurred about 40,000 years ago, when the Neandertalman left behind his traces in the ”Great Ofnet” cave. 

The inventory of the finds in the Ofnet cave is also rich in devices of Homo Sapiens from the earliest period of the Early Stone Age.

The variety of animal bones reflects the abundance of game in the Ice Age. Mammoth teeth and bones were found in the deepest cave deposits. The mammoth was the first big-game animal that was exterminated by man. After the woolly-hair rhinoceros, aurochs, bison and great deer, the wild horse and reindeer, above all, were especially strongly hunted. Bones of these animals and stone tools from their hunt were found in the Ofnet cave, in the ”Hohlenstein” cave and in a cave called ”Hexenküche” (”Witches’ Kitchen”) in the Kaufertsberg hill.

The animal world changed in the course of the progressive warming at the end of the Ice Age. The remains of the killed game from the middle Stone Age come mostly from elk, deer and wild boars. 

Signs of this epoch are tiny stone tools, called ”Mikrolithen”, that can be found in all caves of the Ries.

The Ice Ages shaped the earliest periods of human history. Again and again, large parts of middle Europe were covered with ice for thousands of years.

A few people in small groups wandered over a narrow land bridge between the northern ice and the pressing glacier tongues from the Alps to the foothills in search of edible plants and animals to hunt. 

Handaxes from the Pleistocene Ice Age, more than 100,000 years ago, are the first demonstrable tools.

Hunting groups roamed ever further, leaving large quantities of early and middle Stone Age devices under rock overhangs and in caves. This led to the misconception of Stone Age ”cavemen.” The stocked hunting camps, so-called outdoor stations, that have turned up in the Ries and elsewhere, have just recently corrected this picture. The way of life of the people in Europe at that time can be compared with that of the North American Indian before the colonization of the continent.

The earliest tools of the early Stone Age were struck from the principal part of the stone modules, later the cut-away fragments were used to manufacture various types of devices.